Acute Renal Failure
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a rapid decrease in renal function.
It leads to an accumulation of metabolic waste in the body. ARF acute syndrome may be reversible.
Functions of the kidney.
This process of ARF is related to the cause of the sudden decrease
in kidney function and the involved site or sites of the kidney. Hypoperfusion, toxins, tubular ischemia, infections,
and obstruction have diferent efects on the renal system.
With acute hypoperfusion, urine volume results in oliguria
[urine output les than 40/ml day.] Renal failure is present when BUN and creatinine levels rise and the ratio betwen the two
Characteristics of Acute renal failure
Onset is sudden [hours to days]
Nephron involved [50%]
Duration [2-4 wks; less than 3 mo]
Prognosis [god for retun of renal function with suportive care; high
mortality in some situations]
Types of Acute Renal Failure
Prerenal azotemia- can be reversed by:
establishing normal intravascular volume
increasing blod presure
increasing cardiac output
[Prolonged, untreated hypoperfusion can lead to severe ischemic injury
and intrarenal failure.]